During the course of owning a vehicle, you may be required to install a new power window switch. This is going to be especially true in used cars where the warranty has already expired. Because of their use, power window switches can fail from time to time. This can be because it gets wet, wires start to corrode, or it simply wears out. Replacing the power window switch is not going to require a costly trip to the repair shop. You can easily install a new one yourself in your own garage with basic tools.
Step 1 – Purchase New Switch
Find the parts number from your user manual. If you do not have the user manual you can always find out this number at the auto parts store. Tell them the make and model of your car, including the trim package, and they will be able to find the part that you need.
Step 2 – Compare Switches
Once you get the switch out to the car, or back home to your garage, compare the switches. Look at what they look like and approximate size. If they seem to be the same thing, then you can move on to installing it. If not, then exchange it for the one that is right.
Step 3 – Pry off Bezel
Using a flat head screwdriver you can pry up the bezel that the switch is in. You do not have to remove the door casing or the handle of the door. You simply pry gently on the power window switch bezel to get at the housing.
Step 4 – Remove from Bezel
Once the bezel comes loose, you will notice some tabs that hold it into place. Press down on the locking tab and it will come loose. Hold up the switch and bezel and look for some tabs that hold the switch to the bezel itself. Pry these with a little pressure from the screwdriver and pop the switch from the bezel.
Step 5 – Remove Rockers from Switch
Once you have the power window switch out of the bezel, remove it from the outlet. This is simply disconnecting it from the wire harness. Remove the rockers from the window switch and make sure that you know which direction they go when transferring to the new switch. Mark the front with a small piece of tape so you know where to place them on the new switch.
Step 6 – Assemble New Switch
With the rockers in hand, you can then install them onto the new switch. Take an extra minute to reassure yourself that you have them facing in the right direction. Remove the tape, if you used any, and then connect the wires back to the switch. Pop back into the bezel holder and slide the assembly back into the hole in the door. Push the assembly back in place and make sure you hear the tab snap. Test out the rockers to see if the switch moves the way that it should.
Step 7 – Test Window
Turn your car on and see if the new power window switch works.
One of the heaviest duty engines that have seen the most use is the Cummins 6CT engine from the C-series that the company manufactures. when you take a look at motor homes, RVs, fire trucks, large pickup trucks, and other big vehicles, then what you are seeing under the hood is probably a Cummins 6CT engine. This heavy duty engine definitely has seen a lot of use due to its reliability and the horsepower that it provides. And both of the qualities of the C-series of an engine have made the 6CT a very popular one among the people who love customizing car engines and parts.
What are the engine parts of the 6CT engine?
The combustion chamber is formed of the cylinder, which is tubular, and the piston, which moves in the cylinder from bottom dead center to top dead center and vice versa. The engine often consists of several such cylinders, which can be in different arrangements in the engine. The cylinder opens on one side into the crankcase and on the other side it is closed or closed by valves. Since the cylinder is subjected to heavy loads, especially in the region of the dead centers, where the movement reversal of the piston leads to reduced lubrication and thus to increased wear.
The piston head is one part of the engine. The piston is responsible for the sealing of the combustion chamber. In addition, it should implement the pressure which arises during the working cycle of internal combustion engines in motion and thus drives the motor vehicle or generate pressure by the compression of the fuel-air mixture. The pressure passes the piston to the connecting rod and the heat to the cylinder on.
Another part is the connecting rod, provides for the transmission of the force which is generated during the stroke movement of the piston, on the crankshaft. In this case, the rectilinear piston movement is converted into a rotational movement of the crankshaft. The connecting rod is exposed to constantly changing loads. The stresses on train, pressure, bending and buckling constantly change.
The crankshaft transmits the force delivered by the linear motion of the piston to the connecting rod as the torque to the flywheel of the clutch. The crankshaft consists of crank pin. The crankpins receive the connecting rod and perform a circular movement about the axis of rotation of the crankshaft. The diameter of this circular movement corresponds to the lifting movement which is generated in the cylinder by the piston.
More about the C-series engines
The Cummins 6CT parts can all be purchased for a reasonable price online. And the engine itself is a six-diesel engine that has got a capacity of 8.3 liters. The engine was first being manufactured in the year 1998. The engine was based on the previous Cummins C engine, that was called the 6C8.3. This engine was first produced in 1985. The most popular version of this engine was the diesel version. In fact today, most of the heavy-duty engines that you see are probably the Cummins 6CT engine.
Motorcycle boots are an essential part of your gear and offer much more protection for your feet and ankles than regular boots or shoes. However, new motorcycle boots are stiff and almost always uncomfortable. Therefore, you will need to break the boots in as fast as possible. To that end, use this simple how-to guide to learn how to break your new boots in the shortest time possible.
Step 1 – Choose the Best Fit Possible
The most important step in breaking in new motorcycle boots is choosing the best fit possible. So, when buying motorcycle boots, be sure to try them on and walk around inside the store. Choose a pair that feels fairly comfortable before you buy them.
Step 2 – Apply Leather Conditioner
While at the boot or shoe store, buy some leather conditioner. Before you leave the store, apply the leather conditioner to the boots while you’re still trying them on. Better still, begin breaking the boots in immediately and wear them home.
Step 3 – Flex and Pull
Once you arrive home, take the boots off and begin flexing and pulling the boots as much as possible. Pull the leather in every direction you can and also flex the toe and heel of the boot as much as possible. This will help to soften the leather and also help train the boots to bend and flex as you walk.
Step 4 – Wear Your New Boots Everywhere
It is important to wear your new motorcycle boots as much as possible in order to break them in quickly. So, whenever you leave the house, make sure to put on your motorcycle boots. The only way to really break in your boots is to wear them. So, wear them everywhere you go.
Step 5 – Treat with Rubbing Alcohol
While you’re wearing the boots, apply some rubbing alcohol with a dry towel to the heel and bridge of the foot areas on the boot. Continue wearing the boots and don’t wipe off the alcohol. The alcohol should dry rather quickly and will also help to soften the leather and make the boots more comfortable. This is an old trick that cowboys have used with hard leather boots for nearly 200 years.
Step 6 – Insert Shoe Stretcher at Night
Although wearing your boots as much as possible, treating them with leather conditioner and rubbing alcohol, and bending and flexing can help break in your boots a great deal, one of the most effective methods is to insert shoe stretchers in the boots when you’re not wearing them. So, at night and when you are not wearing the motorcycle boots, insert a shoe stretcher into the boots and expand the stretcher as much as possible. This will help to stretch the boot and will also make it much more comfortable when you’re riding your bike.
Chang Zhi Gui, starring Wang Jinfa, is an experimental shadow play funded by a Tsinghua University’s cultural-heritage project. The show is staged in a church in Yan’an, Shaanxi province.
A Tsinghua University project is helping to preserve intangible culture in China, Cheng Yuezhu reports.
The lights go out and the show begins. Silhouettes of leather-made figurines are projected onto an illuminated screen, delineating stories with the accompaniment of musical instruments, opera-singing and storytelling.
Long before the invention of films, with the earliest text record dating to 1,900 years ago, the screen of shadow play provided a pioneering means of entertainment, its venues ranging from palaces to markets.
A recent experimental shadow play, Chang Zhi Gui (Long Way Home), offers an outlook on innovating upon the traditional art form with cross-cultural elements as part of the Tsinghua University Sulwhasoo Intangible Cultural Heritage Protection Fund’s annual project.
The story explores a diaspora theme. The protagonist Tang Suo, an artist who has lived in Italy for years, comes home to Yan’an, Shaanxi province, for Lunar New Year. The reunion dinner sees a dispute between the protagonist and his father, who disapproves of him living far away from home.
Su Dan, a professor at Tsinghua University and director of the project’s management committee, points out the imperativeness and complexity of innovating upon shadow play.
He says shadow play is a comprehensive art form that incorporates painting, sculpture, performance and Chinese opera. Hence, its innovation must take all these aspects into consideration.
“The implication of this experimental play is an attempt to rejuvenate the ancient art form of shadow play and rid it of its confines,” Su says.
The denouement of the play sees the reconciliation between the protagonist and his father, unconventionally with the Italian song Santa Lucia rendered with a Shaanxi regional opera-singing style.
Elderly performers have carried on the tradition of shadow play, which incorporates puppet-making with folk music, opera-singing and storytelling, in Shaanxi province.
As the conflict escalates, the father wants to find an effective way of communicating with his son. As the son has difficulty comprehending the dialect used in a local art form, the father chooses to sing the Italian song that is well-known in China, according to the play’s director Zhang Jian.
To get the artists to learn singing in lyrics translated into Mandarin instead of their regional dialect was not an easy task. It took 79-year-old Wang Jinfa, who plays the father, some 50 days to learn how to sing the song.
“For 70-year-olds to accept novel things, they must have the willingness and a proactive attitude,” Zhang says.
“We spent almost a year visiting and interviewing elderly artists, and establishing a consensus (to make changes).”
He stresses the importance of making connections between shadow play in its old form and modern life.
Wang is a practitioner of Tongchao shadow play, an intangible cultural art form of Shaanxi province, which incorporates leather-carving, shadow-puppetry performance and a local Chinese opera style.
Art installations made of leather puppets are also on display at the venue.
“In the old days when shadow play flourished, our village had such performances all the time. My teacher used to perform at least 300 days every year. People from neighboring villages would come to our village in the middle of the night just to see a performance,” Wang says.
He recalls that those days were his happiest, traveling around performing and attending other performances. “I used to travel for 40 to 50 days performing. I was doing something I enjoyed, and I got paid for it, as well as lodging. I couldn’t be happier.”
Meanwhile, he says he is saddened by the decline of shadow play. In recent years, requests for performances have reduced, and now he performs shows only a few times in a year. Most of his students are over age 50, which is another worrying prospect.
Wang is working with film and stage projects to innovate upon shadow play, including singing Chinese opera in a play that replaced shadow puppets with real performers.
“The audience enjoyed the performance a lot, including a lot of small children. So I won’t say that shadow play is too traditional and obscure. As long as the method is right, everyone can enjoy it, especially something this good,” Wang says.
The play Chang Zhi Gui took place in a church at the former site of the Lu Xun Academy of Art in Yan’an, an institution established in 1938 during the War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression (1931-45), aimed at cultivating artistic and literary talent. The venue in its glory days witnessed classic performances, including Chinese opera The White-Haired Girl and Chinese song The Yellow River Cantata.
Zhang says to maximize the acoustic quality of the building, no amplifier was used in the recent performance, and the space was also fully put to use, with performances happening not only on the front stage, but in every corner of the church.
“The arrangement was initially a necessary adaptation because of the limited church space, but limitations often give rise to unexpected highlights,” Zhang says.
The Tsinghua University Sulwhasoo Intangible Cultural Heritage Protection Fund was launched in August 2017 by the university and South Korean skin-care brand Sulwhasoo.
Each year the project focuses on researching, promoting and protecting an intangible cultural art form.
Apart from the play, last year’s project’s achievements included two short documentaries about Shaanxi shadow play, and two publications on the art form.
Chang Zhi Gui, starring Wang Jinfa, is an experimental shadow play funded by a Tsinghua University’s cultural-heritage project. The show is staged in a church in Yan’an, Shanxi province.
The team went on three field trips to Shaanxi, visiting and interviewing experts and practitioners of shadow play. It also collected texts, photos and videos, and hosted seminars and workshops to discuss innovation and inheritance.
“Every year we invite scholars and artists, and together discuss the problems faced in taking intangible cultural heritage forward, exchange our experiences and present the work we have done in the past year,” Su says.
An unexpected finding during their trip last year was a manuscript from 71-year-old shadow-play artist Zhang Zhirong, according to Chen Anying, the project’s chief expert.
“During our discussions, we came to realize this artist is different from others. He researches the art form in addition to performing. Then, he showed us the shadow-play scripts he had collected and written,” Chen says.
“He pulled out manuscripts from a tattered envelope and told us that it was a history of the regional shadow play.”
The manuscripts were written by Zhang Zhirong 10 years ago. He can now publish them as a book as part of the intangible heritage fund project.
The fund supported lacquer craft of Shanxi province in 2018, metalwork of Yunnan province in 2019 and Shaanxi shadow play in 2020.This year, Cantonese embroidery will be its focus.
The engine of the Cummins B-Series is a straight six-cylinder diesel engine from Cummins Engine, built since 1984. Since then, the engine has been constantly evolving; the capacity has been increased from 5.9 to 6.7 litters. Designed as an industrial engine for use in commercial vehicles, the B-Series gained notoriety through its use in Ram pickup trucks from 1989 onwards. The B Series was manufactured by Consolidated Diesel Company of North Carolina. With an average mileage of 482,803 km up to the first engine overhaul, the B-Series in Ram Trucks is considered durable. In the following section, the first engine of the B-series, type 6BT, will be discussed.
A brief overview of the 6BT engine:
The original Type 6BT engine, built until 1991, is a 5.9-liter, water-cooled, in-line six-cylinder diesel engine with a cast iron engine block. The cylinder bore is 102.11 mm (4.02 inches); the stroke is 119.89 mm (4.72 inches). From the pistons, the power is transmitted via a connecting rod with an I-shaped shaft to a forged steel crankshaft. The crankshaft drives via spur gears to a lower-lying camshaft, which actuates two hanging valves per cylinder via pushrods.
The 6BT series diesel engine, unlike other competitors in the market, also features turbocharging and direct injection. 6BT produced 160 HG power and torque in the trucks sold between 1989 and 1993. The horsepower and the torque are given in pounds per foot and measured to standard; Alternator, water pump, power steering hydraulic pump and exhaust system have been dismantled for the measurement. Since that time the Cummins 6BT engine has been discontinued. But to this day enthusiasts of these engines have still been able to purchase Cummins 6BT parts as a way to replace or repair any failing car parts that they may already have.
What makes the 6BT so special?
In addition to being the first ever B-series engines that Cummins has made, the 6BT is also a popular series of engines for a number of different reasons. The 6BT is the highest production of 6-liter diesel engines that has ever been made. In fact, it is still being produced in around six countries around the world. Another quality of these engine series is that they provide the best mid-range platform for a diesel engine. And even for a mid-range engine it still is able to be used for a wide variety of different uses and platforms as well.
If you have heard of the famous Dodge Ram vehicle, it is that popular because of the 6BT engine series that it has got under the hood. And to this day the same sort of 6BT engine series is still being used for the Dodge Ram vehicles as well. Many Dodge pickup trucks also use the same 6BT parts even in the present. It has got a simple mechanical design (with 12 valves) that is simply unbeatable in terms of pricing and performance. The competitor’s and other manufacturers of engine parts have simply been unable to beat the 6BT manufactured by Cummins.
A windshield washer reservoir that is cracked will leak washer fluid. You will notice that you are running out of fluid more quickly than usual, or you will see fluid puddling under your car. A damaged reservoir will need to be replaced. Perform a leak test on your reservoir before you remove it and install a new one.
Step 1 – Safety
Be sure you are wearing protective eye wear and that you are working in a well ventilated area. Your car engine should be off and transmission in Park, and the vehicle should be on a level flat surface. Read through the section in your owner’s manual regarding the windshield washer reservoir.
Step 2 – Locating the Old Reservoir
Open the hood of your car and locate the old reservoir. Disconnect the fluid hoses from the tank and the motor to the reservoir. If necessary, disconnect any wiring from the electrical system of the car. Remove the reservoir by unscrewing it from the assembly unit. It will have to be removed from above or below the car depending on your vehicle.
Step 3 – Removing the Wheel
The installation of your new reservoir may require the removal of one of your car wheels in order to get to the right area under the vehicle. Removing the wheel is a simple task, but be sure it is supported by a jack stand for safety.
Step 4 – Installing the New Reservoir
The new reservoir will need to be installed from above or below the car depending on how the old reservoir was removed. Screw the new reservoir into the assembly. Attach the hoses from the tank and the motor to the new reservoir. If necessary, connect any wires to the electrical system of the car. Use the recommended sealant to the seal the reservoir into place.
Step 5 – Testing the New Reservoir
Fill the new windshield washer reservoir to the level marked full, with window washer fluid. Turn on the ignition and press the washer fluid button in your car console. The fluid should readily spray from the nozzles near the windshield Be sure the spray from the nozzles is strong and constant. If not, go back and recheck the hose connections to the reservoir.
Step 6 – Consulting a Professional
If you are unsure about how to properly remove the old windshield washer reservoir and replace it with a new one, make an appointment with a service shop to have a professional do the installation for you. If a professional does the work, most of the cost involved will be for labor. A new windshield washer reservoir is a fairly inexpensive purchase. The installation job should take about an hour.
The year 1967 saw the establishment of office for the construction of No.2 Automobile Factory in Shiyan under the decision of the Central Government. In February 1973, Shiyan was promoted as a prefecture-level city directly under the jurisdiction of Hubei Province.
Since October 1994, the combination of Yunyang Area and former Shiyan City has brought a new Shiyan City with its name unchanged, consisting of Danjiangkou City, Yunyang District (formerly Yunxian County), Yunxi County, Zhushan County, Zhuxi County, Fangxian County and Zhangwan and Maojian Districts.
The emergence of Shiyan, the auto-city, was completely attributed to the settlement of No.2 Automobile Factory in the 1960s since there was only Shiyan Township instead of Shiyan City before that.
In a sense, it is this factory that has brought the development of Shiyan. Serving as a production base of commercial vehicles enjoying No.1 in China and top 3 in the world, Shiyan houses over 500 enterprises for the production of finished automobiles and their parts, with nearly 100 billion yuan of stock assets of manufacturing and an annual production capacity of 0.5 million automobiles.
Go kart racing is a great hobby and pastime for people of all ages, but you’re only as good as the go kart engine you’re running. There are several techniques that can be used to increase the power of a go kart engine. Here are several tips to help you get the most out of your go kart engine.
- Remove the Governor
Engines that are used for go karts are usually stripped from riding lawn mowers or golf carts. While this is a great way to give new life to an old engine, it also comes with some limitations. The government has set up safety measures that prevent lawn mowers and golf carts from hitting high speeds. They do this by installing what they call a “governor.” Adjusting or removing the governor will increase the speed and power of the go kart engine.
- Increase the Engine Size
The obvious solution to making an engine go faster is to increase the size of the engine. Many go kart engines only yield about five horsepower. Even upgrading to a 5.5 horsepower go kart engine can increase the speed more than you might think.
- Fix up the Carburetor
The name of the game is fuel injection. The carburetor is the workhorse of the go kart engine. There are jets within the carburetor that can cause the go kart engine to go slower. Changing these jets will increase the power of the go kart engine. You can also mill the head of the engine and bore the cylinders.
- Replace the Engine Pulley
A go kart engine has a motor pulley that is attached to the crankshaft of the motor. A small motor pulley decreases the speed and increases power of the engine. Measure the size of the motor pulley on your go kart engine and replace it with one that is larger. You will see a marked improvement in speed, but some loss in power.
- Switch out the Transmission Pulley
Like the engine pulley, if you replace the transmission pulley, you can increase the speed of the go kart. The transmission pulley is attached behind the motor pulley and is held in place by a bolt. By removing this bolt, you are able to remove the transmission pulley. To get an improvement in speed and power, it needs to be replaced with one that is smaller than the old one by at least two inches.
- Adjust the Air Filter
Many people feel running a go kart without an air filter increases its speed and power. This is not the case, as doing so will damage the engine. You can, however, make two adjustments to the air filter that will result in improved speed and power to the go kart engine. The first is to drill several holes through the air filter box without damaging the air filter. The second is to use a high performance air filter. More air flow means more combustion, which means more power. Combining these will further increase the speed and power of the go kart engine.
Cummins Engine Assembly: A Complete Guide
You cannot deny the fact that Cummins engine assembly seems like a daunting task, especially if this is your first time doing it. There are a lot of factors that you need to consider, and assembling a Cummins engine requires a lot of patience in the process. So, to help you get started here is a complete guide to assembling.
First, we start with measuring. Get the exact measurements of the crankshaft main bearing journal diameter using a micrometer. Unlike other measuring tools, it can help you to get more accurate measurements. Just make sure that you’re going to inspect each journal in several locations for better results.
When you’re going to purchase a micrometer, it’s either you could ask for an in-person demo of how to use it from the store where you’ve bought it, or you could watch tutorial videos. It’s empirical that you know how to use it properly otherwise you will not get proper measurements.
While measuring, you should record the measurements of the figures while going around the main bearing journal. For instance, in a typical modern V8, there are approximately five bearing journals that you are required to measure.
After measuring, you can proceed to install the main bearings. When it comes to the main bearing cap, you can start by installing in the block and pushing it to the edge of the main bearing bore. This process is repetitive but important until all bolts of the main bearing cap are in place. This will help to ensure that while the engine is in use, the bearing does not rotate by itself. Don’t worry because most Cummins engine numbered their bearing caps to make it easier for the installer. Torquing the cap bolts is highly recommended to ensure that it’s tightly sealed. Just make sure that you’re going to follow the specification of the manufacturer.
Next, you can proceed to the checking of clearances. You can now use a dial bore gauge if you don’t have an inside micrometer. Just like the crankshaft, it is important that you’re going to measure the bearings as well. Again, look back into the specifications of your manufacturer for proper guidance for a more appropriate clearance figures.
4. Crankshaft installation
The rear main seal could either be a one-piece or two-piece type, it depends on the Cummins engine that you have. Regardless of the format of your rear seal, it must be installed after checking for the clearances. Make sure that the seal on the lips faces is facing towards the engine itself. Using a clean towel, clean the seal groove thoroughly so that the sealant could function properly.
After the crankshaft installation, eventually, you’ll need to check the thrust clearance, rod clearances and use plastigage to finish the installation.
Follow these installation tips to ensure that you can properly assemble your Cummins engine. This will serve as your guide along with the manufacturer’s specification. In that way, you Cummins engine can function properly and avoid rookie mistakes in the process of installing.
In the juncture of the States of Chu, Qin and Han in the Spring and Autumn Period, the Wudang Mountain has long been a strategic place in military for its large altitude and valley depth, which enables difficult access and easy defense.And the name “Wudang” is associated with resistance against external aggression.
And a Taoist system, or “Wudang School”, formed in the area of the Wudang Mountain by worshipping Xuanwu as the chief god with excellence in self-cultivation as well as Leifa and charm as a form of Taoism, a religion deeply rooted in Chinese traditional culture.
In the Ming Dynasty, the emperors viewed the Wudang Mountain as a royal temple, worshipped Zhenwu God as the patron angel for the country and casted it as the mountain of “Taiyue, Taihe”, outweighing the five great mountains. Today, the Wudang Mountain deserves the title of holy mountain for its magnificent ancient building complexes, precious Taoist cultural relics, magic Taoist drugs, unique Taoist music, mysterious marital arts and abstruse Taoist philosophy.